斯里兰卡

        斯里兰卡,古称“锡兰”,简称兰卡,是位于印度洋中的一座小岛。因为其紧邻印度,所以也被称为“印度洋中的一滴泪”。地缘关系使她深受印度文化影响。

      来自北印度的雅利安人移民至锡兰岛建立了僧伽罗王朝。此后印度孔雀王朝的阿育王派其子来宣扬佛教,最终成为国教。公元前2世纪前后,南印信奉印度教的泰米尔人也开始来到锡兰岛屿定居,从此僧伽罗人和泰米尔人的纷争不断,直至近年内战结束。此外,由于其“东方十字路口”的特殊地理位置,锡兰也留下了大量做生意,信奉伊斯兰的阿拉伯商人。因此,如今的斯里兰卡是一个以佛教为主,多种信仰和谐共处的国家。

        斯里兰卡中部山区和西南部海滨集中了斯里兰卡最值得游览的精华部分,奉有国宝释迦牟尼牙舍利的康堤圣城(Kandy),高山茶园仙境努瓦勒埃利耶(Nuwara Eliya),号称“小非洲”的雅拉国家公园(Yala National Park)以及椰风摇曳的印度洋海滩,这几个区域又各有特点。

        广袤的中部山区在崇山峻岭间更完整的保存了传统僧伽罗文化。追溯到10世纪锡兰岛屿被葡萄牙殖民时期,沿海多数地区很快臣服于侵略者,以康堤王国为代表的中部山地曾抵抗欧洲殖民长达300年,至今仍是僧伽罗人的心灵首都。中部山地遍布绿色植被,老式小火车轰隆隆穿过的高海拔茶园仙境,让你有一种穿越时光的错觉。

        而西部海滨主要是以科伦坡为中心,北至尼甘布(Neganbo)和班达拉奈克机场,南至海滨小城马特勒(Matara)的沿海地带。除了科伦坡,西南部沿海城镇几乎都不大,可以在半天到一天内步行游览观光完。这些海滨城市大多在面海方向有背包客民宿聚集点。

        斯里兰卡北部刚刚从内战中恢复过来,旅行者还很少,但是也有独特的景观,比如贾夫纳附近穿过大海的公路和铁路。

 

Sri Lanka is a continental island of the Indian subcontinent, shaped like a teardrop falling from the southern end of India, situated between longitudes 79º 39E and 81º 53E and latitudes 5º 54N and 9º 52N. It's 437km long from north to south and only 225km at its widest. Its area of 66,000sq km is about the same size as Ireland. The south-central region is mountainous and has an elevation ranging from 900m to 2440m. This is surrounded by an upland belt of 300-900m elevation. The coastal plains hardly exceed 100m in elevation. This plain is most extensive in the north and east, and the continental shelf ends fairly close to the shoreline except in the northwest where it is continuous with that of India. Today Sri Lanka is considered one of the most bio-diverse areas in South Asia. Recent scientific evidence indicates that many of the plants species in the southwest of the country have a Deccan-Gondwana ancestry.

The drainage pattern of the country is almost entirely governed by the central highlands, with all the perennial water courses originating in the mountains and winding their way down to the plains below.


气候

Sri Lanka's equatorial position gives its lowlands a tropical climate, with year round temperatures of 27-28ºC and a relatively constant day length. It is always the right season somewhere on the island Rainfall is largely governed by monsoonal winds, which occur during two seasons of the year. From mid-May to September, the monsoon blows from the southwest direction and brings in a greater amount of moisture than during December to February when the wind blows from the northeast. The distinct inter-monsoonal periods receive convectional rains at times cyclones. During the southwest monsoon, the position and dramatic relief of the southwestern side of the central highlands forces the moisture-laden air upwards. The rapidly cooled air condenses, causing precipitation mostly on the windward slopes of the island’s southwest. During this time the northeastern and southeastern parts of the island hardly get any rain. On the other hand, the northeast monsoon winds rise over the central highlands more gradually, and the rain shadow effect is not nearly so distinct, allowing precipitation to fall on the entire island. This has resulted in the division of the country in to two major climatic zones; the wet zone, which receives rain from both monsoons, and the dry zone, which receives rain from only one. The gradual change from the wet zone to dry zone allows an intermediate zone to exist. In addition, two small areas at the extreme northwest and southeast of the country have a very dry climate and known as arid zones.


Vegetation types

Vegetation reflects the combined effect of topography, climate and soils. In Sri Lanka the natural vegetation is predominated by a diversity of forest types. Only a small fraction of land is under non-tree-dominated vegetation. This is mainly grassland, and coastal and fresh water wetlands.

The most extensive type of forest in the island is the dry mixed evergreen forest found in the dry zone (also called semi-evergreen forests). In the intermediate zone, the vegetation gradually changes to moist semi-evergreen forests. Although these forests have a fair proportion of deciduous species, they are essentially evergreen. In the wet zone vegetation has been largely categorised by elevation with wet-evergreen forests or rain forests in the lowlands and hills, lower montane forests on the lower slopes of mountains between 1,000m and 1,500m, and montane forests above 1500m. Also in the coastal areas mangroves and salt marshes colonise inundated bays while areas inundated by fresh water haveswamp and floodplain forests.

Within each climatic zone, the presence and extent of specific habitat types determine the occurrence and prevalence of particular species of birds. Within dry zone, for example, habitats such as forests, marshes, grassland, man-made lakes, coastal mudflats etc. harbour certain species of birds, which are restricted to that specific habitat or are most often associated with it. While some species of birds occur in both zones at all elevations (e.g. Junglefowl) the distribution of many others is more limited. Many species and subspecies of birds are endemic to Sri Lanka and a significant number of these are more or less restricted to and characteristic of the rain forests of the wet zone. Some of this wet zone endemics are further restricted to the higher hills.


 斯里兰卡野生动物资源

斯里兰卡记录超过430中野生鸟类,233种为留鸟,198种为候鸟,其中33种为斯里兰卡特有种。


最佳季节

十一月至五月初是斯里兰卡的最佳观鸟季节,因为此时冬候鸟还在斯里兰卡越冬。在海滨一些地方可以看到很多的涉禽,以及一些非常特别冬候鸟,例如印度八色鸫、杂色地鸫、克什米尔姬鹟、橙头地鸫等等。 如果你对这些候鸟没兴趣的话,5-7月也是造访斯里兰卡的好时节。


野生动物观赏点

斯里兰卡有很多非常棒的野生动物观赏点,其中辛哈拉加热带雨林、班达拉湿地、亚拉国家公园、乌达瓦拉威国家公园及霍顿高原最让人印象深刻。